From: James E. Agenbroad (
Date: Wed Aug 23 2000 - 12:14:43 EDT

> ] The only real question here is what typographical practice in Devanagari
> ] would be if two nuktated consonants came together in a halfform/fullform
> ] juxtaposition or in a conjunct form involving two nuktated consonants
> ] (do such conjunct forms even exist? -- I would doubt it).
> ]
> ] --Ken
> ]
> ] >
> ] > What do you think ?
> ] >
> ] > Chookij V.
> ] >
> ] >
> ] >
> ]
                                         Wednesday, August 23, 2000
In a list of Devanagari conjuncts if compiled a while ago there are at
least two cases of conjuncts in which both consonants have a nukta:
1. Ka + nukta + halant + ka + nukta = qqa
2. Ka + nukta + hanant + pha + nukta = qfa

I think:
  1. Any consonant can have a nukta. But if a Unicode character includes a
precomposed nukta, U+0929, 0931, 0934 and 0958 through 095F, and has a
another nukta, U+093C, following it, I'd ignore the second nukta during
rendering. Whether a vowel or vowel sign can have a nukta I do not know.
  2. A nukta should immediately follow a consonant--before a halant or
vowel sign or 'various signs' = candrabindu, anusvara, visarga = U+901 to
U+903 only.
  3. These 'various signs' should follow a nukta, vowel sign (or
halant?). I'm unsure if one of these 'various signs' after a halant
would be valid; I doubt if 'various sign' followed by halant is.
  4. In a conjunct consonant only the last consonant can have these
'various signs' after it (possibly with nukta or vowel sign (or
halant?) between the consonant and one of the 'various signs.
  5. A syllable (conjunct or not) should not have more than one of these
'various signs'--thus two of these signs adjacent is invalid.
  6. Two adjacent halants or vowel signs are probably invalid. A vowel
can follow a vowel sign but a vowel sign immediately after a vowel is
  7. Unicode 3.0 fig. 9-3 (4) to the contrary notwithstanding, halant
immediately followed by a vowel sign or an independent vowel is highly
questionable--just consonant + vowel sign would seem preferable.
  8. A vowel or vowel sign immediately followed by halant is also suspect.
  I have no knowledge of the order of U+0951 to U+954. The above exclude
a grammar giving examples of bad practices. All the above IMHO.

          Jim Agenbroad ( )
     The above are purely personal opinions, not necessarily the official
views of any government or any agency of any.
Phone: 202 707-9612; Fax: 202 707-0955; US mail: I.T.S. Dev.Gp.4, Library
of Congress, 101 Independence Ave. SE, Washington, D.C. 20540-9334 U.S.A.

This archive was generated by hypermail 2.1.2 : Tue Jul 10 2001 - 17:21:13 EDT