**From:** Jim Allan (*jallan@smrtytrek.com*)

**Date:** Thu Sep 04 2003 - 11:58:43 EDT

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Kent Karlson wrote:

*> Jim Allan wrote:
*

*> ...
*

*>> One may note the common use of the greater-than and less-than signs as
*

*>
*

*>> angle brackets in many publications
*

*>
*

*> Just because < and > are in ASCII, the have been used as approximations.
*

That was the origin of this practice.

However the practice is found now in professional technical publishing

as a matter of choice, for example in modern linguistics and in

Backus-Naur notation where the more normal angle brackets are certainly

available for use.

*>> including the Unicode standard. I
*

*>> don't think that necessitates coding separate characters.
*

*>
*

*> Yes, it does:
*

*> 27E8;MATHEMATICAL LEFT ANGLE BRACKET;Ps;0;ON;;;;;Y;;;;;
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*> 27E9;MATHEMATICAL RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET;Pe;0;ON;;;;;Y;;;;;
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*>
*

*> (Despite the name, you can use them outside of math expressions.)
*

*>
*

*> You also have the (mathematical):
*

*> 2991;LEFT ANGLE BRACKET WITH DOT;Ps;0;ON;;;;;Y;;;;;
*

*> 2992;RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET WITH DOT;Pe;0;ON;;;;;Y;;;;;
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*>
*

*> But:
*

*> 3008;LEFT ANGLE BRACKET;Ps;0;ON;;;;;Y;OPENING ANGLE BRACKET;;;;
*

*> 3009;RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET;Pe;0;ON;;;;;Y;CLOSING ANGLE BRACKET;;;;
*

*> are for CJK use.
*

I am quite aware that these are encoded. Angle brackets are also to be

found in the well known and widely available Adobe symbol character set

employed in various Symbol fonts and I have used them.

But the GREATER-THAN and LESS-THAN signs sometimes continue to be used

*by preference* for angle brackets even when angle bracket glyphs are

available.

For an example, from

http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/Preface.pdf under *Sequences*:

<< A sequence of two or more code points may be represented by a

comma-delimited list, set off by angle brackets. For this purpose angle

brackets consist of U+003C LESS-THAN-SIGN and U+003E GREATER-THAN-SIGN.

Spaces are optional after the comma, and U+ notation for the code point

is also optional—for example, “<U+0061, U+0300>”. >>

The common *deliberate* use of LESS-THAN and GREATER-THAN for angle

brackets does not require that clones be encoded in Unicode for that use.

Similarly the convention that I and some others use of sometimes

indicating quoted text in email or on forums by "<<" and ">>" does not

require any new encoding symbols in Unicode.

Symbol characers often have multiple and inconsistant usage without

ceasing to be the same characters.

Jim Allan

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