Re: Letters for Indic transliteration

From: Mark Davis (
Date: Wed Jul 20 2005 - 11:27:14 CDT

  • Next message: Richard Wordingham: "Re: Letters for Indic transliteration"

    For the respective characters, here are the representations in two different fonts (which you may or may not see, depending on whether you have them installed).

     U+090B ऋ vocalic R (Sanskrit origin) => r̥
     U+095C ड़ retroflex R => ṛa

    Arial Unicode MS
     U+090B ऋ vocalic R (Sanskrit origin) => r̥
     U+095C ड़ retroflex R => ṛa

    OpenType fonts are fully capable of getting the dot and ring placement under the r to be correct; it's just a matter of whether the font designer went to the trouble of setting it up.

    (Note that when we did Indic transliteration, we found that the ISCII specification is not fully roundtripping; we had to make some small adjustments to it. See


    ----- Original Message -----
    From: "Andreas Prilop" <>
    To: <>
    Sent: Wednesday, July 20, 2005 06:47
    Subject: Re: Letters for Indic transliteration

    > On Tue, 19 Jul 2005, Richard Wordingham wrote:
    > > Are there actual examples with *real* words? There's no confusion in Pali
    > > or Vedic Sanskrit because the consonant represented by underdotted 'l'
    > > always occurs next to a vowel, whereas (in modern transliterations) the
    > > syllabic resonant never occurs next to a vowel.
    > I don't know about Vedic Sanskrit or Pali.
    > But every book in Hindi will show you real words with
    > U+090B vocalic R (Sanskrit origin)
    > U+095C retroflex R
    > These are different letters with different pronunciation in Hindi.
    > They need to be distinguished in transliteration (since transliteration
    > is supposed be one-to-one).
    > See also
    > Languages: Bengali, Hindi, Malayalam, Marathi, Sinhalese.
    > Each of these languages requires both "dot below" and "ring below"
    > *at the same time* on "R" or "L" (or both "R" and "L").

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