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Unicode® 15.0.0 (DRAFT)

2022 September NN (Announcement)

This page summarizes the important changes for the Unicode Standard, Version 15.0.0. This version supersedes all previous versions of the Unicode Standard.

The Unicode Character Database, Code Charts, and Annexes for Version 15.0 will be released on September NN, 2022. The core specification (the PDF chapters) of Version 15.0 is still pending publication due to the extensive editorial work required for the new content additions. Until final publication, the links to individual chapters of the core specification will not be activated. An announcement will be made when the core specification for Version 15.0 is available. In the meantime, implementers can continue to reference the relevant sections of the most recent version of the core specification.
A. Summary
B. Technical Overview
C. Stability Policy Update
D. Textual Changes and Character Additions
E. Conformance Changes
F. Changes in the Unicode Character Database
G. Changes in the Unicode Standard Annexes
H. Changes in Synchronized Unicode Technical Standards
M. Implications for Migration

A. Summary

Unicode 15.0 adds 4489 characters, for a total of 149,186 characters. These additions include 2 new scripts, for a total of 161 scripts, as well as 20 new emoji characters.

The new scripts and characters in Version 15.0 add support for lesser-used languages and unique written requirements worldwide, including numerous symbols additions. Funds from the Adopt-a-Character program provided support for some of these additions. The new scripts and characters include:

  • TBD

Popular symbol additions:

  • 20 emoji characters. For complete statistics regarding all emoji as of Unicode 15.0, see Emoji Counts. For more information about emoji additions in version 15.0, including new emoji ZWJ sequences and emoji modifier sequences, see Emoji Recently Added, v15.0.

Other symbol and notational additions include:

  • TBD

Support for CJK unified ideographs was enhanced in Version 15.0 by significant corrections and improvements to the Unihan database. Changes to the Unihan database include updated source lists, regular expressions, and new and updated fields. See UAX #38, Unicode Han Database (Unihan) for more information on the updates.

Additional support for lesser-used languages and scholarly work was extended, including:

  • TBD

Important chart font updates, including:

  • TBD

Synchronization

Several other important Unicode specifications have been updated for Version 15.0. The following four Unicode Technical Standards are versioned in synchrony with the Unicode Standard, because their data files cover the same repertoire. All have been updated to Version 15.0:

Some of the changes in Version 15.0 and associated Unicode Technical Standards may require modifications to implementations. For more information, see the migration and modification sections of UTS #10, UTS #39, UTS #46, and UTS #51.

See Sections D through H below for additional details regarding the changes in this version of the Unicode Standard, its associated annexes, and the other synchronized Unicode specifications.

B. Technical Overview

Version 15.0 of the Unicode Standard consists of:

  • The core specification
  • The code charts (delta and archival) for this version
  • The Unicode Standard Annexes
  • The Unicode Character Database (UCD)

The core specification gives the general principles, requirements for conformance, and guidelines for implementers. The code charts show representative glyphs for all the Unicode characters. The Unicode Standard Annexes supply detailed normative information about particular aspects of the standard. The Unicode Character Database supplies normative and informative data for implementers to allow them to implement the Unicode Standard.

Core Specification

The core specification is available as a single pdf for viewing. (14 MB) Links are also available in the navigation bar on the left of this page to access individual chapters and appendices of the core specification.

Code Charts

Several sets of code charts are available. They serve different purposes:

  • The latest set of code charts for the Unicode Standard is available online. Those charts are always the most current code charts available, and may be updated at any time. The charts are organized by scripts and blocks for easy reference. An online index by character name is also provided.

For Unicode 15.0.0 in particular two additional sets of code chart pages are provided:

  • A set of delta code charts showing the new blocks and any blocks in which characters were added for Unicode 15.0.0. The new characters are visually highlighted in the charts.
  • A set of archival code charts that represents the entire set of characters, names and representative glyphs at the time of publication of Unicode 15.0.0.

The delta and archival code charts are a stable part of this release of the Unicode Standard. They will never be updated.

Unicode Standard Annexes

Links to the individual Unicode Standard Annexes are available in the navigation bar on the left of this page. The list of significant changes in the content of the Unicode Standard Annexes for Version 15.0 can be found in Section G below.

Unicode Character Database

Data files for Version 15.0 of the Unicode Character Database are available. The ReadMe.txt in that directory provides a roadmap to the functions of the various subdirectories. Zipped versions of the UCD for bulk download are available, as well.

Version References

Version 15.0.0 of the Unicode Standard should be referenced as:

The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 15.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2022. ISBN 978-1-936213-32-0)
https://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode15.0.0/

The terms “Version 15.0” or “Unicode 15.0” are abbreviations for the full version reference, Version 15.0.0.

The citation and permalink for the latest published version of the Unicode Standard is:

The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard.
https://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/

A complete specification of the contributory files for Unicode 15.0 is found on the page Components for 15.0.0. That page also provides the recommended reference format for Unicode Standard Annexes. For examples of how to cite particular portions of the Unicode Standard, see also the Reference Examples.

Errata

Errata incorporated into Unicode 15.0 are listed by date in a separate table. For corrigenda and errata after the release of Unicode 15.0, see the list of current Updates and Errata.

C. Stability Policy Update

There were no significant changes to the Stability Policy of the core specification between Unicode 14.0 and Unicode 15.0.

D. Textual Changes and Character Additions

Two new scripts were added with accompanying new block descriptions:

Script Number of
Characters
Kawi 86
Nag Mundari 42

Changes in the Unicode Standard Annexes are listed in Section G.

Character Assignment Overview

4489 characters have been added. Most character additions are in new blocks, but there are also character additions to a number of existing blocks. For details, see delta code charts.

E. Conformance Changes

There are no significant new conformance requirements in Unicode 15.0.

F. Changes in the Unicode Character Database

The detailed listing of all changes to the contributory data files of the Unicode Character Database for Version 15.0 can be found in UAX #44, Unicode Character Database. The changes listed there include character additions and property revisions to existing characters that will affect implementations. Some of the important impacts on implementations migrating from earlier versions of the standard are highlighted in Section M.

G. Changes in the Unicode Standard Annexes

In Version 15.0, some of the Unicode Standard Annexes have had significant revisions. The most important of these changes are listed below. For the full details of all changes, see the Modifications section of each UAX, linked directly from the following list of UAXes.

Unicode Standard Annex Changes
UAX #9
Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm
The text under UAX9-C2 was amended to emphasize that higher-level protocols should be used to mitigate misleading bidirectional ordering of source code, including potential spoofing attacks. An extended example of use of the higher-level protocol HL4 for program text was added in Section 4.3.2, HL Example 2 for Program Text.
UAX #11
East Asian Width
No significant changes in this version.
UAX #14
Unicode Line Breaking Algorithm
No significant changes in this version.
UAX #15
Unicode Normalization Forms
The text in Section 5.1, Composition Exclusion Types was updated.
UAX #24
Unicode Script Property
No significant changes in this version.
UAX #29
Unicode Text Segmentation
Four postbase Kawi characters were added to the list of SpacingMark exceptions, so that they are assigned Grapheme_Cluster_Break=XX.
UAX #31
Unicode Identifier and Pattern Syntax
The text now clarifies that contextual restrictions on ZWJ and ZWNJ are applicable only if the default identifier syntax is customized to add those characters. Important guidance on profiles for default identifiers is presented in UAX31-R1. The text now clarifies that requirement UAX31-R3 Pattern_White_Space and Pattern_Syntax Characters is applicable not only to pattern syntaxes, but also to programming languages. In particular, some Pattern_Whitespace characters are relevant to issues of bidirectional ordering and potential spoofing attacks. The two new scripts for Unicode 15.0 were added to the Excluded Scripts table.
UAX #34
Unicode Named Character Sequences
A further clarification was added about medial hyphen in UAX34-R3. The explanation of the Unicode namespace for character names was extended in UAX34-D3.
UAX #38
Unicode Han Database (Unihan)
Information about CJK Extension H and the single-character extension to CJK Extension C were added. The sources and syntax were updated for kIRG_GSource and kIRG_TSource. The syntax was updated for several fields dealing with variants. A new field, kAlternateTotalStrokes was added. Several new sections dealing with details of sources were added to the text.
UAX #41
Common References for Unicode Standard Annexes
All references were updated for Unicode 15.0.
UAX #42
Unicode Character Database in XML
New code point attributes, values, and patterns were added for Unicode 15.0.
UAX #44
Unicode Character Database
The documentation was updated to describe the changes to the UCD for Version 15.0.
UAX #45
U-Source Ideographs
The status "H" was added for the new CJK Extension H. A new section was added to the text, descripting the Ideographic Description Sequence field in USourceData.txt.
UAX #50
Unicode Vertical Text Layout
A short section was added discussing the limits of the applicability of the Vertical_Orientation property when dealing with right-to-left scripts.

H. Changes in Synchronized Unicode Technical Standards

There are also significant revisions in the Unicode Technical Standards whose versions are synchronized with the Unicode Standard. The most important of these changes are listed below. For the full details of all changes, see the Modifications section of each UTS, linked directly from the following list of UTSes.

Unicode Technical Standard Changes
UTS #10
Unicode Collation Algorithm
No significant changes in this version.
UTS #39
Unicode Security Mechanisms
The zero width joiner (ZWJ) and zero width non-joiner (ZWNJ) characters are changed from Identifier_Status=Allowed to Identifier_Status=Restricted; they are therefore no longer allowed by the General Security Profile by default. Implementers who implement the General Security Profile or who otherwise use the Identifier_Status or Identifier_Type properties should carefully review the impact of that change.
UTS #46
Unicode IDNA Compatibility Processing
A note was added to Section 4.2, ToASCII regarding the empty label for the DNS root.
UTS #51
Unicode Emoji
The definition of emoji_zwj_element was updated, and the emoji flag sequence definition was updated to better align with the discussion in Annex B, Valid Emoji Flag Sequences. The rules in Section 1.4.9, EBNF and Regex were updated. The text in Section 2.7.1, Emoji and Text Presentation Selectors was updated to clarify the behavior of the text presentation selector on emoji ZWJ sequences.

M. Implications for Migration

There are a significant number of changes in Unicode 15.0 which may impact implementations upgrading to Version 15.0 from earlier versions of the standard. The most important of these are listed and explained here, to help focus on the issues most likely to cause unexpected trouble during upgrades.

Script-related Changes

Two new scripts have been added in Unicode 15.0.0. Some of these scripts have particular attributes which may cause issues for implementations. The more important of these attributes are summarized here.

  • TBD

Casing Issues

  • TBD

Numeric Property Issues

  • TBD

CJK/Unihan Changes

  • TBD

See UAX #38, Unicode Han Database (Unihan) for further details on these changes, especially Section 4.2, Listing by Date of Addition to the Unicode Standard, and Section 4.3, Listing by Location within Unihan.zip. UAX #38 also has updated regex values for numerous Unihan properties.

Emoji Changes

  • 20 new emoji characters have been added. However, in addition to those individual characters, many new emoji sequences have been recognized, as well. Implementations supporting emoji should be checked to reflect changes in UTS #51, Unicode Emoji and all of its associated data files.

Code Charts

  • TBD