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The Unicode Standard Acknowledgements

Authorship and Production

The authorship and production of The Unicode Standard is due to the dedication of many people over many years. We are greatly indebted to many individuals for all they have done.

The individuals active on the Unicode Editorial Committee made major contributions that were central to the design, authorship, and review of this version of the Unicode Standard and associated technical publications.

The Unicode Standard Annexes are an integral part of the Unicode Standard. There are also numerous Unicode Standard Standards that are maintained in version synchrony with the Unicode Standard. Acknowledgement of the work of the many contributing authors of those documents, as well as the ongoing work of the maintaining editors and reviewers can be found in the Acknowledgements sections of each of those documents.

Many fonts have been made freely available over the years to print the code charts. See the list of font contributors for detailed acknowledgements.

Other organizations and standards bodies have provided invaluable support. Consortium members and staff were critical to ongoing production , and the Consortium Technical Committees determined the content of the Standard. The Script Encoding Initiative greatly expanded the support of historic and lesser used scripts by the Standard.

Software, Licenses, and Equipment

The following companies have given generously by supplying software and licenses, and facilities and equipment over the years:

  • Adobe Systems Incorporated generously supplied licenses for the Minion typeface family, Adobe® FrameMaker® app and Adobe® Creative Cloud apps, which were used to create the text and graphics of the core specification.
  • Particular thanks for facilities, equipment, and resources are owed to Apple Inc. and Microsoft Corporation. Apple provided much needed hardware in support of the Unicode Han Database. We especially wish to thank Microsoft for its generous support in providing office space, as well as licenses for Visual Studio 2010 and Windows 7.
  • PdfLib GmbH generously provided PDFlib+PDI 6.0.3 for Microsoft Windows and PDFlib TET (Text Extraction Toolkit) 2.1.0 for Microsoft Windows, and Asmus, Inc. provided custom-built software based on these libraries and used for the post-production processing of PDFs for the code charts.
  • Finally, ongoing work on CJK encoding was supported by the generous provision of licenses of Wenlin 4.0 by Thomas Bishop.

Technical Contributors

Hundreds on technical contributors have built the content of the Unicode Standard over the years. We acknowledge their many contributions, focusing here on contributions associated with character encoding, character properties, and the core specification. Technical contributors for the Unicode Standard Annexes and the many other Unicode-associated publications are individually listed in each of those documents. The listings on this page are divided into topical sections: Script and Character Proposals, Emoji and Symbol Proposals, Contributions for Character Properties, and Contributions for Figures. Most of the proposals acknowledged here are permanently archived in the UTC Document Register. Lists of technical contributors for The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0 and earlier can be found in the links for Prior Acknowledgements.

Script and Character Proposals

Over the years many scripts and characters have been added to the Unicode Standard. We express deep appreciation to the following experts who shared their specialized knowledge in order to improve the repertoire of the standard and to allow us to better serve our worldwide user community. Many of these individuals labored long hours to do extensive research and develop detailed proposals for encoding. The Script Encoding Initiative has been particularly important in its efforts to coordinate and shepherd much of this script-related encoding work.

Unicode 11.0 (2018)

  • For Ahom additions: Martin Hosken
  • For Armenian additons: Luc Baronian
  • For astrological symbol additions: David Faulks
  • For Bengali additions: Sridatta A and Srinidhi A
  • For Bopomofo additions: Andrew West
  • For Chakma additions: Bivuti Chakma and Andrew Glass
  • For CJK unified ideograph additions: Ideographic Rapporteur Group    
  • For Devanagari additions: Shriramana Sharma
  • For Dogra: Anshuman Pandey and Christopher Shackle
  • For Georgian Mtavruli capital letters: Michael Everson, Nika Gujejiani, and Akaki Razmadze
  • For Grantha additions: Martin Hosken
  • For Gunjala Gondi: Anshuman Pandey, Mukund Gokhale, Sridhar Murthy, and Mark Penny
  • For Gurmukhi additions: Sridatta A and Srinidhi A
  • For Hanifi Rohingya: Anshuman Pandey, James Lloyd-Williams, Muhammad Noor, Lorna Priest
  • For Hebrew additions: Mark Shoulson
  • For ideographic tally marks: Ken Lunde and Daisuke Miura
  • For Indic siyaq numbers: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Kaithi additions: Benjamin Yang
  • For Kannada additions: Sridatta A and Srinidhi A
  • For Kharoshthi additions: Andrew Glass and Stefan Baums
  • For Latin additions: Michael Everson
  • For Makasar: Anshuman Pandey, Ian Caldwell, Anthony Jukes, Sirto Koolhof, and Christopher Miller
  • For Mayan numerals: Jameson Quinn
  • For Medefaidrin: Andrij Rovenchak, Moses Ekpenyong, and Eno-Abasi Urua
  • For medieval punctuation additions: Michael Everson and Andrew West
  • For Mongolian additions: Andrew West, Viacheslav Zaytsev, and Amgalan Zhamsoev
  • For Newa additions: Sridatta A and Srinidhi A
  • For N'ko additions: Andrij Rovenchak and Michael Everson
  • For Old Sogdian: Anshuman Pandey, Nicholas Sims-Williams, and Yutaka Yoshida
  • For Sogdian: Anshuman Pandey, Nicholas Sims-Williams, and Yutaka Yoshida
  • For Soyombo additions: Anshuman Pandey
  • For symbol additions: David Faulks, Michael Everson, and Andrew West
  • For tally marks: Ken Lunde and Daisuke Miura
  • For Tangut additions: Andrew West
  • For Telugu additions: Sridatta A and Srinidhi A
  • For Xiangqi game symbols: Andrew West

Unicode 10.0 (2017)

  • For Bengali additions: Shriramana Sharma
  • For Bopomofo additions: Andrew West, Liang Hai
  • For CJK unified ideograph additions: Ideographic Rapporteur Group
  • For CJK unified ideograph additions for transliteration of Slavonic: Yuri Shardt, Aleksandr Andreev, Mitrophan Chin
  • For Gujarati additions: Ismaili Khoja, Anshuman Pandey
  • For Hentaigana: ITSCJ SC2 Committee, IPSJ, Japan
  • For Malayalam additions: Cibu Johny, Shriramana Sharma, Shiju Alex, Sunil VS
  • For Masaram Gondi: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Nüshu: Chinese National Body, Michael Everson
  • For Old Italic additions: Chris Little, Michael Everson
  • For Syriac additions: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Soyombo: Anshuman Pandey
  • For a Vedic addition: Shriramana Sharma
  • For Zanabazar Square: Anshuman Pandey

Unicode 9.0 (2016)

  • For Adlam: Michael Everson, Abdoulaye Barry, Ibrahima Barry
  • For Arabic additions: Roozbeh Pournader, Lateef Sagar Shaikh, Hamid Banafunzi, Marghani Banafunzi, Maxamed Nuur, Lorna Evans
  • For Bhaiksuki: Anshuman Pandey, Dragomir Dimitrov
  • For Cyrillic additions: Aleksandr Andreev, Yuri Shardt, Nikita Simmons
  • For Khojki additions: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Glagolitic additions: Aleksandr Andreev, Heinz Miklas, Yuri Shardt
  • For Greek additions: Dumbarton Oaks, Joel Kalvesmaki
  • For Kannada additions: Vinodh Rajan, Srinidhi
  • For Latin additions: Michael Everson, Denis Jacquerye
  • For Malayalam additions: Cibu Johny, Shrimanana Sharma
  • For Marchen: Andrew West
  • For Mongolian additions: Aaron Bell, Greg Eck, Andrew Glass, Andrew West
  • For Newa: Anshuman Pandey, Bishnu Chitrakar, Nepal Lipi Guthi, Samir Karmacharya, Dev Dass Manandhar, Ken Whistler
  • For Osage: Michael Everson, Herman Mongrain Lookout, Cameron Pratt
  • For Saurashtra additions: Vinodh Rajan
  • For Supplemental Punctuation additions: Aleksandr Andreev, Yuri Shardt, Nikita Simmons, Dumbarton Oaks, Joel Kalvesmaki
  • For Tangut and Tangut components: Andrew West, Viacheslav Zaytsev, Michael Everson, Richard Cook, Han Xiaomang, Jia Changye, Jing Yongshi, Nie Hongyin, Sun Bojun

Unicode 8.0 (2015)

  • For Ahom: Martin Hosken, Stephen Morey
  • For Arabic additions: Roozbeh Pournader
  • For Anatolian Hieroglyphs: Michael Everson, Deborah Anderson
  • For Cherokee additions: Michael Everson, Durbin Feeling
  • For CJK unified ideograph additions: Ideographic Rapporteur Group, Hong Kong SAR
  • For a Cuneiform addition: Michael Everson, Steve Tinney
  • For Cyrillic additions: Aleksandr Andreev, Yuri Shardt, Nikita Simmons
  • For Devanagari additions: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Early Dynastic Cuneiform: C. Jay Crisostomo, Michael Everson
  • For Grantha additions: Shriramana Sharma
  • For a Gujarati addition: Vinodh Rajan
  • For Hatran: Michael Everson
  • For Latin additions: Nurian Jumagueldinov, Ilya Yeviampiev, Karl Pentzlin, Andrew West, Lorna Priest, Michael Everson, Denis Jacquerye, Chris Lilley
  • For a Malayalam addition: Shriramana Sharma
  • For Meroitic Cursive additions: Michael Everson
  • For Multani: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Old Hungarian: André Szabolcs Szelp, Michael Everson, Jeno Demecxky, Gabor Hosszu, Tamas Rumi, Laszlo Sipos, Erzsebet Zelliger
  • For Sharada additions: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Siddham additions: Taichi KAWABATA, Toshiya SUZUKI, Kiyonoro NAGASAKI, Masahiro SHIMODA, Deborah Anderson, Anshuman Pandey, Michael Everson, Shriramana Sharma
  • For Sutton SignWriting: Michael Everson, Martin Hosken, Stephen Slevinski, Valerie Sutton
  • For a Telugu addition: Shriramana Sharma, Suresh Kolichala, Vinodh Rajan, Nagarjuna Venna

Unicode 7.0 (2014)

  • For Arabic additions: Anshuman Pandey, Lorna Priest, Martin Hosken, Nurian Joomagueldinov, Karl Pentzlin, Ilya Yevlampiev
  • For Bassa Vah: Michael Everson, Charles Riley
  • For a Bengali addition: Anshuman Pandey
  • For a Brahmi addition: Andrew Glass, Shriramana Sharma
  • For Caucasian Albanian: Michael Everson, Jost Gippert
  • For combining marks additions: Michael Everson, David Starner, Jost Gippert, Karl Pentzlin
  • For Cuneiform additions: Michael Everson, Steve Tinney
  • For Cyrillic additions: Ilya Yevlampiev, Vladas Tumasonis, Karl Pentzlin, Michael Everson, Soslan Khubulov, Tapani Salminen, Deborah Anderson, Yuri Shardt, Aleksandr Andreev, Nikita Simmons
  • For a Devanagari addition: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Duployan: Van Anderson
  • For Elbasan: Michael Everson, Robert Elsie
  • For Grantha: Government of Tamil Nadu, Shriramana Sharma, INFITT, and others
  • For a Greek addition: Michael Bobeck
  • For a Kannada addition: Shriramana Sharma
  • For Khojki: Anshuman Pandey, Irfan Gowani, Shafique Virani
  • For Khudawadi: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Latin additions: Michael Everson, Joshua Jensen, Karl Pentzlin, Denis Jacquerye, Chris Lilley, Vladas Tumasonis, Luanne von Schneidemesser, Deborah Anderson, Lewis Lawyer, Ken Whistler
  • For Latin (Teuthonista) additions: Michael Everson, Alois Dicklberger, Karl Pentzlin, Eveline Wandi-Vogt
  • For Limbu additions: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Linear A: Michael Everson, John Younger, Maurizio Del Freo, Brent Davis, Emilia Oddo, Yves Duhox
  • For Mahajani: Anshuman Pandey
  • For a Malayalam addition: Shriramana Sharma
  • For Manichaean: Michael Everson, Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst, Roozbeh Pournader, Shervin Afshar
  • For Mende Kikakui: Michael Everson, Konrad Tucscherer
  • For Modi: Anshuman Pandey, Rajesh Khilari, Madhave Deshpande
  • For Mro: Martin Hosken, Michael Everson, John Clifton
  • For Myanmar additions: Martin Hosken, Michael Everson
  • For Nabataean: Michael Everson, Laila Nehme, John Healey
  • For an Old Italic addition: Chris Little
  • For Old North Arabian: Michael Everson, M.C.A Macdonald
  • For Old Permic: Michael Everson, Ilya Yevlampiev, Esa Anttikosi, Enye Lav, Atruras JaThere
  • For Pahawh Hmong: Michael Everson, Anthony Lee, Chia Koua Vang, Tzianeng Vang, Gymbay Moua, Shong Yang
  • For Palmyrene: Michael Everson, John Healey, Reinhard Lehmann, Viktor Golinets
  • For Pau Cin Hau: Anshuman Pandey, Christopher Button
  • For Psalter Pahlavi: Michael Everson, Roozbeh Pournader
  • For Runic additions: Michael Everson, Andrew West
  • For Sharada additions: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Shorthand Format Controls: Van Anderson
  • For Siddham: Anshuman Pandey, Shingon Buddhist International Institute, Lee Collins, Peter Lofting
  • For Sinhala additions: Sri Lanka Standards Institution
  • For Supplemental Punctuation additions: German National Body, Michael Everson, André Szabolcs Szelp, Gabor Hosszu
  • For Telugu additions: Shriramana Sharma, Suresh Kolichala, Vinodh Rajan, Nagarjuna Venna
  • For Tirhuta: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Vedic additions: Shriramana Sharma
  • For Warang Citi: Michael Everson, K. David Harrison, Gregory Anderson, Anna Pucilowski, Dobro Buriuli, Chandra Mohan Haibru, K.C. Naik Biruli

Unicode 6.1 (2012), Unicode 6.2 (2012), and Unicode 6.3 (2013)

  • For Arabic additions: Anshuman Pandey, Roozbeh Pournader, Lorna Priest, Martin Hosken
  • For Chakma: Michael Everson, Martin Hosken, Hagendra Chakma, Provungshu Chakma, John Clifton, Keisuke Huziwara, Pragya Joyti, Saikat Khisa, Helen Leake, and Chandra Roy
  • For a CJK unified ideograph addition: Ken Lunde
  • For CJK compatibility ideograph additions: Kim Kyongsok
  • For Coptic additions: Michael Everson, Stephen Emmel
  • For Cyrillic additions: Michael Everson, Victor Baranov, Heinze Miklas, Achim Rabus
  • For Georgian additions: Michael Everson, Ninell Melkadze, Karl Pentzlin, Ilya Yevlampiev
  • For a Gujarati addition: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Lao additions: Martin Hosken
  • For Latin additions: Karl Pentzlin, Lorna Priest, Andrew West
  • For Meetei Mayek Extensions: Michael Everson
  • For Meroitic Hieroglyphs: Michael Everson, Richard Lobban, Claude Rilly, Reginald Smith, Michael Zach
  • For Meroitic Cursive: Michael Everson
  • For Miao: Erich Fickle, Michael Everson, Chinese National Body, Yunnan Minority Language Commission, David Morse, Joakim Enwall
  • For Sharada: Anshuman Pandey, Jürgen Hanneder, Walter Slaje
  • For Sora Sompeng: Michael Everson, David Stampe, Piers Vitebsky
  • For Sundanese additions: Michael Everson and Dian Tresna Nugraha
  • For Supplemental Punctuation additions: Michael Everson, Siegfried Richter, Susana Pedro, António Emiliano, Karl Pentzlin
  • For Takri: Anshuman Pandey
  • For Tifinagh additions: Paul Anderson
  • For Vedic additions: Shriramana Sharma

Emoji and Symbol Proposals

Many important new symbols and major symbol sets have been added to the Unicode Standard over the years. In recent times, encoding of emoji has also become a significant portion of these symbol additions. For emoji, in particular, we are indebted to the ongoing and detailed work of the Emoji Subcommittee of the UTC, which processes initial emoji proposals and maintains detailed charts regarding all aspects of emoji encoding. In addition, we are deeply indebted to the following individuals and organizations whose expertise and, in many cases, multi-year efforts have allowed us to greatly extend the symbol coverage of Unicode to better meet the needs of telecommunications, commerce, mathematics and other user communities.

Unicode 10.0 (2017)

  • For a currency sign: Ken Shirriff
  • For miscellaneous symbols for Chinese folk religion: Shervin Afshar, Roozbeh Pournader
  • For miscellaneous symbol additions: Simon Griffee, Ken Shirriff
  • For Typicon symbols: Aleksandr Andreev, Yuri Shardt, Nikita Simmons, the Ponomar Project

Unicode 9.0 (2016)

  • For power symbols: Terence Eden, Joe Loughry, Bruce Nordman
  • For symbols for 4K TV standard: Japanese National Body

Unicode 8.0 (2015)

  • For the Georgian currency sign: George Melashvili
  • For Kievan musical symbols: Aleksandr Andreev, Yuri Shardt, Nikita Simmons
  • For miscellaneous symbol additions: Karl Penzlin

Unicode 7.0 (2014)

  • For Ancient Greek Numbers additions: Joshua Sosin, Paul Heilporn, Cisca Hoogendijk, with Donald Mastronarde, Todd Hickey, Deborah Anderson
  • For Armenian symbol additions: Michael Everson, Hrant Papazian
  • For Coptic Epact numbers: Anshuman Pandey, Stephen Emmel, Michael Everson
  • For currency signs: Nina Marie Evensen, Deborah Anderson, Karl Pentzlin, Russia National Body, Mykyta Yevstifeyev
  • For Emoticon additions: German National Body
  • For miscellaneous symbol additions: Yuri Shardt, Nikita Simmons, Aleksandr Andreev
  • For Playing Cards additions: Michael Everson, Karl Pentzlin, Andrew West
  • For Wingdings and Webdings additions: Michel Suignard

Unicode 6.1 (2012), Unicode 6.2 (2012), and Unicode 6.3 (2013)

  • For Arabic mathematical alphabetic symbols: Azzeddine Lazrek, Deborah Anderson, Murray Sargent, and Laurențiu Iancu
  • For bidirectional format codes: Matitiahu Allouche, Mohamed Mohie, Aharon Lanin, Mark Davis, Roozbeh Pournader
  • For currency sign additions: Karl Pentzlin, Michael Everson
  • For Emoticon additions: Michael Everson
  • For mathematical symbol additions: Laurențiu Iancu
  • For miscellaneous symbol additions: Karl Pentzlin, Yuri Shardt, Aleksandr Andreev

Contributions for Character Properties

The work to develop and verify the consistency of many of the character properties and algorithms is a significant part of the ongoing effort to improve the Unicode Standard. An important role in this effort was played by the International Components for Unicode (ICU) Technical Committee. Many other contributors have made character property proposals, or have otherwise reviewed and commented on character properties.

  • This list is under development.

Contributions for Figures

We are indebted for the continued use of sources for preparation of various figures in the core specification.

  • Grenfel (1921), Austin (1973), and Allen (1931) were used as sources to draw the Figure 6-5, Examples of Ancient Greek Editorial Marks.
  • Parisian Schola Cantorum and Hymns of Faith were the sources used for Arabic musical passages in Figure 21-1.
  • The Kharoshthi map in Figure 14-2 was adapted from Glass (2000).

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