I read your message about the use of n-graphs (letter combinations) in the
usual English rendition systems for the romanization of foreign words/names.
Digraphs (2 letters to designate a single sound) are the most widely
deployed. When an underbar (macron line beneath) appears on a digraph <kh>
or <gh>, those represent either laryngealized velar or laryngeal fricatives,
which are also represented by <h[underbreve]> & <g[overdot]>, respectively.
When those underbarred digraphs appear in romanized Hindi, Urdu, ...ETC.,
they represent the Arabic letters kha' & ghên—which are (in fact) laryngeal
fricatives, that're formed from Hebrew/Samaritan velar & pharyngeal
fricatives. In Sanskrit, they're written with the aspirates k`a & g`a—but
each of those with a nukta (underdot) beneath them. Thank You!
ISRI INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLISM RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Robert Lloyd Wheelock 63 Wilson ST Augusta, ME 04330-9473 USA
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