Re: Devanagari and half-consonant forms

From: Chookij Vanatham (
Date: Tue Nov 23 1999 - 13:55:42 EST

Hi Mark,

I'm not an expert in Hindi but here is what I guess.
The difference between those two KKA sequences is that one has ZWJ and the
other doesn't. I guess that the sequence with ZWJ, the glyph would be
the ligature one if there is the glyph in the font. If there is no ligature
glyph in the font, then I think the half-consonant glyph connected with the
live consonant glyph is ok too. If the font doesn't have these 2 glyphs
at all, then, just use the live consonant glyph with VIRAMA glyph and the
other live consonant glyph then.

Chookij V.

] Date: Tue, 23 Nov 1999 10:14:00 -0800 (PST)
] From: Mark Leisher <>
] Subject: Re: Devanagari and half-consonant forms
] To: Unicode List <>
] MIME-version: 1.0
] Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit
] Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit
] RajKumar> I am no expert in Devanagari or in Hindi but in all the Hindi i
] RajKumar> studied or seen the kka is represented by the liguature in the
] RajKumar> fig kk2. What i did not understand is that in what situation the
] RajKumar> kk1 is used and what is the difference between the two. Also
] RajKumar> what should be done if i have to get two ka s side by side ie
] RajKumar> just kaka no liguature or a conjunct
] Mark> Though it can be done both ways, I believe the first form (kk1) is a
] Mark> relatively common conjunct in Hindi.
] Mark> To get KAKA, simply type two KA's (U+0915) with no intervening
] Mark> VIRAMA (U+094D). Conjunct and ligature formation occur when the
] Mark> VIRAMA is present.
] A reply I left out:
] As far as I know, there is no difference between the two KKA sequences I
] attached earlier.
] An important point:
] I would like to point out that the formation of conjuncts is dependent on the
] renderer and what is available in the font. Different editors may provide
] different default forms.
] -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
] Mark Leisher
] Computing Research Lab I have never made but one prayer to God,
] New Mexico State University a very short one:
] Box 30001, Dept. 3CRL "Oh Lord, make my enemies ridiculous."
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