Re: Cantillation marks (teamim)

From: Patrick Andries (
Date: Thu Dec 16 1999 - 12:21:59 EST

----- Original Message -----
From: Gregg Reynolds <>

> Hello, Patrick,
> Your question sent me to my recently acquired copy of "Gesenius' Hebrew
> Grammar, as edited and enlarged by the late E. Kautzsch", second English
> edition, revised in accordance with the 28th German edition by A. E.
> Cowley, 1909, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Whew. I believe this is the
> Standard Grammar. The first 90 pages of densely set material covers the
> phonology and orthography. It lists 40-odd accent marks on pages 59-62,
> which strangely enough are arranged in the same order as those in the
> Unicode list, for the most part. The book is available through the
> standard online bookstores; I inserted references below where it looks
> relevant to your question.

Thanks a lot for this reference, I am very tempted.
A few comments below.

> > 2) Another source gives the name GALGAL to a sign that, as far as I
> > see, is identical to YERAH BEN YOMO, U+05AA. Could it be a synonym ?
> >
> Item 20, p. 61, "Galgal or Yerah".

Yes, this seems to be clarified, thanks to you and Jonathan.

> > ii) Azla (in the Ashkenazi tradition) this looks like a reversed
> > GERESH U+059C, i.e. the Azla is pointing towards the right.
> >
> Item 18 of the disjunctive common accents list, p. 61: " 'Azla, when
> associated with Geresh ... also called Qadma."

Yes, I noticed this thanks to the reference Jonathan supplied

> But in Gesenius, Geresh points to the right, Azla to the left; did you
> misspeak yourself? :)

Well, is this my LTR training playing again a trick ? Geresh is that way ยด
and Qadma the opposite `.

Thanks for the help and the pointer to the reference work.

P. Andries

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