Re: Cantillation marks (teanim)

From: Gregg Reynolds (
Date: Thu Dec 16 1999 - 10:45:44 EST

Hello, Patrick,

Your question sent me to my recently acquired copy of "Gesenius' Hebrew
Grammar, as edited and enlarged by the late E. Kautzsch", second English
edition, revised in accordance with the 28th German edition by A. E.
Cowley, 1909, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Whew. I believe this is the
Standard Grammar. The first 90 pages of densely set material covers the
phonology and orthography. It lists 40-odd accent marks on pages 59-62,
which strangely enough are arranged in the same order as those in the
Unicode list, for the most part. The book is available through the
standard online bookstores; I inserted references below where it looks
relevant to your question.


Patrick Andries wrote:
> A few questions about Hebrew cantillation marks (téanim):
> 1) One of my sources lists as a separate cantillation mark a « sof
> pasouq » looking like this ?? ( colon and a subscript bar), Unicode uses
> SOF PASUQ U+05C3 for the colon ? . Any explanation ? The source is reputable
> : « Dictionnaire encyclopédique du Judaïsme », which is available in English
> under the title « The Encyclopedia of Judaism », edited by G. Wigoder.
> 2) Another source gives the name GALGAL to a sign that, as far as I can
> see, is identical to YERAH BEN YOMO, U+05AA. Could it be a synonym ?

Item 20, p. 61, "Galgal or Yerah".

> 3) The same Encyclopedia of Judaism lists two teanim that I do not seem
> to be able to find in the standard:
> i) Teré Qadmin in the Sefardi tradition (a kind of Pashta but
> straight or doubled : ` or ``), in the Yemeni tradition this is apparently
> called a Teren Fishtin.

Dunno about that one.

> ii) Azla (in the Ashkenazi tradition) this looks like a reversed
> GERESH U+059C, i.e. the Azla is pointing towards the right.

Item 18 of the disjunctive common accents list, p. 61: " 'Azla, when
associated with Geresh ... also called Qadma."

Item 18 of the conjunctive "Accents of the Books", p. 62: "Azla".

But in Gesenius, Geresh points to the right, Azla to the left; did you
misspeak yourself? :)

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