Euro symbol in HTML (was: Euro character in ISO)

From: Otto Stolz (
Date: Wed Jul 12 2000 - 15:41:30 EDT

Am 2000-07-11 um 23:30 UCT hat Asmus Freytag geschrieben:
> The only safe way to encode a Euro in HTML appears to be to use Unicode -
> e.g. by using 8859-1 together with the numeric character reference (NCR) of
> €

This does, however, not work with Netscape 4.x, as these browsers only
understand decimal NCRs. Pre-4.7 Netscape browsers do not correctly
interpret NCRs abobe 255, if an 8-bit encoding (e. g., Latin- is used,
in blatant contrast to the standard, cf.
<> (I do not remeber
the exact version when this bug has been fixed).

Hence, the only safe way to encode the Euro symbol seems to be:
- Use the &euro; entity, cf. the last line of
This will cause Netscape 4.7 to display "EUR" if the Euro glyph
is not available (at least the version on my Unix box does so).

The following two ways are safe, if the Euro glyph is available in
the fonts specified by the user:
- use UTF-8 together with the decimal NCR "&#8364;";
- use UTF-8 together with the UTF-8 encoding 'E2 82 AC' (in hex).

In all cases, do not forget to declare your HTML source as either
HTML 4.0 or HTML 4.01,
cf. <>.

Cf. my examples:
- <> in Latin-1,
- <> in Latin-9,
- <> in UTF-8.

Best wishes,
   Otto Stolz

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