Re: Arabic Script: A new Hamza is required for Urdu and Sindhi

From: Mete Kural (
Date: Tue Sep 20 2005 - 11:25:15 CDT

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    Hi Philippe and All,

    From: "Philippe Verdy" <>
    >Couldn't that be treated by a ligature indication? I mean ZWJ on both sides
    >of hamza?

    OK, maybe I didn't use the best language to explain the problem when I said hamza is not a dis-joining character. I do not mean to say that hamza itself is a joining character. If hamza itself were a joining character then what you suggest might have worked. But what I am saying is that in classical Arabic, hamza is a character that does not cause the base letter immediately preceding it and immediately following it to dis-join from each other, if they do join without the hamza. In other words hamza is sort of like the alef qaseer (short alef/superscript alef) in classical Arabic as it floats over the connection of the letter preceding it and following it. When used in the beginning and end of a word though, it doesn't float over other letters' connections and it is placed lower in the text plane.

    Here is an example..

    La-aaya where the hamza floats between the connection of lam and alef in the lam-alef ligature. Contrast this with la-ayya where the hamza here is a superscript hamza U+0654 that goes over alef:


    Mete Kural
    Touchtone Corporation

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