|Version||1.0 (draft 8)|
|Editors||Mark Davis (Google Inc.), Peter Edberg (Apple Inc.)|
|Latest Proposed Update||n/a|
This document aims to improve the interoperability of emoji characters across implementations by providing guidelines and data.
This is a draft document which may be updated, replaced, or superseded by other documents at any time. Publication does not imply endorsement by the Unicode Consortium. This is not a stable document; it is inappropriate to cite this document as other than a work in progress.
Please submit corrigenda and other comments with the online reporting form [Feedback]. Related information that is useful in understanding this document is found in the References. For the latest version of the Unicode Standard see [Unicode]. For a list of current Unicode Technical Reports see [Reports]. For more information about versions of the Unicode Standard, see [Versions].
Emoji are pictographs (pictorial symbols) that are typically presented in a colorful cartoon form and used inline in text. They represent things such as faces, weather, vehicles and buildings, food and drink, animals and plants, or icons that represent emotions, feelings, or activities. Emoji on smartphones and in chat and email applications have become popular worldwide.
The word emoji comes from the Japanese:
Emoji may be represented internally as graphics or they may be represented by normal glyphs encoded in fonts like other characters. These latter are called emoji characters for clarity. Some Unicode characters are normally displayed as emoji; some are normally displayed as ordinary text, and some can be displayed both ways. See also the OED: emoji, n.
There’s been considerable media attention to emoji since they appeared in the Unicode Standard, with increased attention starting in late 2013. For example, there were some 6,000 articles on the emoji appearing in Unicode 7.0, according to Google News. See the Emoji press page for many samples of such articles, and also the Keynote from the 38th Internationalization & Unicode Conference.
Emoji became available in 1999 on Japanese mobile phones. There was an early proposal in 2000 to encode DoCoMo emoji in Unicode. At that time, it was unclear whether these characters would come into widespread use—and there wasn't support from the Japanese mobile phone carriers to add them to Unicode—so no action was taken.
The emoji turned out to be quite popular in Japan, but each mobile phone carrier developed different (but partially overlapping) sets, and each mobile phone vendor used their own text encoding extensions, which were incompatible with one another. The vendors developed cross-mapping tables to allow limited interchange of emoji characters with phones from other vendors, including email. Characters from other platforms that could not be displayed were represented with 〓 (U+3013 GETA MARK), but it was all too easy for the characters to get corrupted or dropped.
When non-Japanese email and mobile phone vendors started to support email exchange with the Japanese carriers, they ran into those problems. Moreover, there was no way to represent these characters in Unicode, which was the basis for text in all modern programs. In 2006, Google started work on converting Japanese emoji to Unicode private-use codes, leading to the development of internal mapping tables for supporting the carrier emoji via Unicode characters in 2007.
There are, however, many problems with a private-use approach, and thus a proposal was made to the Unicode Consortium to expand the scope of symbols to encompass emoji. This proposal was approved in May 2007, leading to the formation of a symbols subcommittee, and in August 2007 the technical committee agreed to support the encoding of emoji in Unicode based on a set of principles developed by the subcommittee. The following are a few of the documents tracking the progression of Unicode emoji characters.
|2000-04-26||L2/00-152||NTT DoCoMo Pictographs||Graham Asher (Symbian)|
|2006-11-01||L2/06-369||Symbols (scope extension)||Mark Davis (Google)|
|2007-08-03||L2/07-257||Working Draft Proposal for Encoding Emoji Symbols||Kat Momoi, Mark Davis, Markus Scherer (Google)|
|2007-08-09||L2/07-274R||Symbols draft resolution||Mark Davis (Google)|
|2007-09-18||L2/07-391||Japanese TV Symbols (ARIB)||Michel Suignard (Microsoft)|
|2009-01-30||L2/09-026||Emoji Symbols Proposed for New Encoding||Markus Scherer, Mark Davis, Kat Momoi, Darick
Yasuo Kida, Peter Edberg (Apple)
|2009-03-05||L2/09-025R2||Proposal for Encoding Emoji Symbols|
|2010-04-27||L2/10-132||Emoji Symbols: Background Data|
|2011-02-15||L2/11-052R||Wingdings and Webdings Symbols||Michel Suignard|
In 2009, the first Unicode characters explicitly intended as emoji were added to Unicode 5.2 for interoperability with the ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses) set. A set of 722 characters was defined as the union of emoji characters used by Japanese mobile phone carriers: 114 of these characters were already in Unicode 5.2. In 2010, the remaining 608 emoji characters were added to Unicode 6.0, along with some other emoji characters. In 2012, a few more emoji were added to Unicode 6.1, and in 2014 a larger number were added to Unicode 7.0.
Here is a summary of when some of the major sources of pictographs used as emoji were encoded in Unicode. These sources include other characters in addition to emoji.
|umbrella with rain drops|
|smiling face with sunglasses|
|Wingdings & Webdings||
Unicode characters can correspond to multiple sources. The L column contains single-letter abbreviations for use in charts and data files. Characters that do not correspond to any of these sources can be marked with Other (x).
For a detailed view of when various source sets of emoji were added to Unicode, see emoji-versions-sources (the format is explained in Data Files). The UCD data file EmojiSources.txt shows the correspondence to the original Japanese carrier symbols.
The Selected Products table lists when Unicode emoji characters were incorporated into selected products. (The Private Use characters (PUA) were a temporary solution.)
|2008-01||GMail mobile||PUA||color||palette||モバイル Gmail が携帯絵文字に対応しました|
|2008-10||GMail web||PUA||color||palette||Gmail で絵文字が使えるようになりました|
|2008-11||iPhone||iPhone OS 2.2||PUA||color||palette||Softbank users, others via 3rd party apps. CNET Japan article on Nov. 21, 2008.|
|2011-07||Mac||OSX 10.7||Unicode 6.0||color||Character Viewer|
|2011-11||iPhone, iPad||iOS 5||Unicode 6.0||color||+emoji keyboard|
|2012-06||Android||Jelly Bean||B&W||3rd party input||…Quick List of Jelly Bean Emoji…|
|2012-09||iPhone, iPad||iOS 6||+ variation selectors|
|2012-08||Windows||8||Unicode only; no emoji variation sequences||desktop/tablet: b&w;
|integrated in touch keyboards|
|2013-08||Windows||8.1||Unicode only; emoji variation sequences||all: color||touch keyboards; phone: text prediction features (e.g. “love” -> ❤)||Color using scalable glyphs (OpenType extension)|
|2013-11||Android||Kitkat||color||native keyboard||…new, colorful Emoji in Android KitKat|
People often ask how many emoji are in the Unicode Standard. This question does not have a simple answer, because there is no clear line separating which pictographic characters should be displayed with a typical emoji style. For a complete picture, see Which Characters are Emoji.
The term emoticon refers to a series of text characters (typically punctuation or symbols) that is meant to represent a facial expression or gesture (sometimes when viewed sideways), such as the following.
Emoticons predate Unicode and emoji, but were later adapted to include Unicode characters. The following examples use not only ASCII characters, but also U+203F ( ‿ ), U+FE35 ( ︵ ), U+25C9 ( ◉ ), and U+0CA0 ( ಠ ).
Often implementations allow emoticons to be used to input emoji. For example, the emoticon ;-) can be mapped to in a chat window. The term emoticon is sometimes used in a broader sense, to also include the emoji for facial expressions and gestures. That broad sense is used in the Unicode block name Emoticons, covering the code points from U+1F600 to U+1F64F.
Unicode is the foundation for text in all modern software: it’s how all mobile phones, desktops, and other computers represent the text of every language. People are using Unicode every time they type a key on their phone or desktop computer, and every time they look at a web page or text in an application. It is very important that the standard be stable, and that every character that goes into it be scrutinized carefully. This requires a formal process with a long development cycle. For example, the dark sunglasses character was first proposed years before it was released in Unicode 7.0.
Characters considered for encoding must normally be in widespread use as elements of text. The emoji and various symbols were added to Unicode because of their use as characters for text-messaging in a number of Japanese manufacturers’ corporate standards, and other places, or in long-standing use in widely distributed fonts such as Wingdings and Webdings. In many cases, the characters were added for complete round-tripping to and from a source set, not because they were inherently of more importance than other characters. For example, the clamshell phone character was included because it was in Wingdings and Webdings, not because it is more important than, say, a “skunk” character.
In some cases, a character was added to complete a set: for example, a rugby football character was added to Unicode 6.0 to complement the american football character (the soccer ball had been added back in Unicode 5.2). Similarly, a mechanism was added that could be used to represent all country flags (those corresponding to a two-letter unicode_region_subtag), such as the flag for Canada, even though the Japanese carrier set only had 10 country flags.
This document describes a new set of selection factors used to weigh the encoding of prospective candidates, in Annex C: Selection Factors.
That annex also points to instructions on submitting character encoding proposals. People wanting to submit emoji for consideration for encoding should see that annex. It may be helpful to review the Unicode Mail List as well.
For a list of frequently asked questions on emoji, see the Unicode Emoji FAQ.
This document provides:
It also provides background information about emoji, and discusses longer-term approaches to emoji.
As new Unicode characters are added or the “common practice” for emoji usage changes, the data and recommendations supplied by this document may change in accordance. Thus the recommendations and data will change across versions of this document.
Additions beyond Unicode 7.0 are being addressed by the Unicode Technical Committee: as any new characters are approved, this document will be updated as appropriate.
Review Note: The data presented here is draft, and may change considerably before publication. Some of the data presented here, such as collation and annotations, have been incorporated into the Unicode CLDR project instead: for example, see the Unicode CLDR Annotations Chart.
Review Note: Provide some wording to indicate that these are formal definitions, and readers interested in more discursive text should skip this section.
emoji — A colorful pictograph that can be used inline in text. Internally the representation is either (a) an image or (b) an encoded character. The term emoji character can be used for (b) where not clear from context.
emoticon — (1) A series of text characters (typically punctuation or symbols) that is meant to represent a facial expression or gesture such as ;-) (2) a broader sense, also including emoji for facial expressions and gestures.
Review Note: These terms will be reconciled with the Unicode glossary.
emoji character — Either a level 1 or level 2 emoji character.
For more details about level 1 and level 2 emoji, see Section 3 Which Characters are Emoji .
default emoji presentation character — A character with an [emoji-data] Field 1 value of “emoji”. This consists of the characters that default to an emoji presentation in a mixed environment, rather than a text presentation.
default text presentation character — A character that either is not listed in [emoji-data] or has an [emoji-data] Field 1 value of “text”. This consists of the characters that default to a text presentation in a mixed environment, rather than an emoji presentation.
emoji modifier base — A character with an [emoji-data] Field 3 value of either “minimal” or “optional”. These are characters whose appearance can be modified by a subsequent emoji modifier in an emoji modifier sequence.
Review Note: we’ve gotten feedback that “minimal” is a confusing term, and it would be better to use another term like “kernel” or “core”. Feedback on this point would be appreciated.
emoji variation selector — One of the two variation selectors used to request a text or emoji presentation for an emoji character:
- U+FE0E for a text presentation
- U+FE0F for an emoji presentation
emoji modifier sequence — A sequence of the following form, where if the
emoji_variation_selectoroccurs, the sequence
<emoji_modifier_base emoji_variation_selector>is found in StandardizedVariants.html:
emoji_modifier_base (emoji_variation_selector)? emoji_modifier
For more details about emoji modifiers, see Section 2.2 Diversity.
Review Note: The exact terms and definitions may change before release. The text below may also need changes for consistency.
Unicode characters can have many different presentations as text. An "a" for example, can look quite different depending on the font. Emoji characters can have two main kinds of presentation:
More precisely, a text presentation is a simple foreground shape whose color which is determined by other information, such as setting a color on the text, while an emoji presentation determines the color(s) of the character, and is typically multicolored. In other words, when someone changes the text color in a word processor, a character with an emoji presentation will not change color.
Any Unicode character can be presented with a text presentation, as in the Unicode charts. For the emoji presentation, both the name and the representative glyph in the Unicode chart should be taken into account when designing the appearance of the emoji, along with the images used by other vendors. The shape of the character can vary significantly. For example, here are just some of the possible images for U+1F36D LOLLIPOP, U+1F36E CUSTARD, U+1F36F HONEY POT, and U+1F370 SHORTCAKE:
While the shape of the character can vary significantly, designers should maintain the same “core” shape, based on the shapes used mostly commonly in industry practice. For example, a U+1F36F HONEY POT encodes for a pictorial representation of a pot of honey, not for some semantic like "sweet". It would be unexpected to represent U+1F36F HONEY POT as a sugar cube, for example. Deviating too far from that core shape can cause interoperability problems: see accidentally-sending-friends-a-hairy-heart-emoji. Direction (whether a person or object faces to the right or left, up or down) should also be maintained where possible, because a change in direction can change the meaning: when sending “crocodile shot by police”, people expect any recipient to see the pistol pointing in the same direction as when they composed it. Similarly, the U+1F6B6 pedestrian should face to the left , not to the right.
General-purpose emoji for people and body parts should also not be given overly specific images: the general recommendation is to be as neutral as possible regarding race, ethnicity, and gender. Thus for the character U+1F64B happy person raising one hand, the recommendation is to use a neutral graphic like instead of an overly-specific image like . This includes the characters listed in the annotations chart under “human”. The representative glyph used in the charts, or images from other vendors may be misleading: for example, the construction worker may be male or female. For more information, see the Unicode Emoji FAQ.
Names of symbols such as BLACK MEDIUM SQUARE or WHITE MEDIUM SQUARE are not meant to indicate that the corresponding character must be presented in black or white, respectively; rather, the use of “black” and “white” in the names is generally just to contrast filled versus outline shapes, or a darker color fill versus a lighter color fill. Similarly, in other symbols such as the hands U+261A BLACK LEFT POINTING INDEX and U+261C WHITE LEFT POINTING INDEX, the words “white” and “black” also refer to outlined versus filled, and do not indicate skin color.
However, other color words in the name, such as YELLOW, typically provide a recommendation as to the emoji presentation, which should be followed to avoid interoperability problems.
Review Note: Eventually we will need to update the core spec and FAQ to match the recommendations given here.
Emoji characters may not always be displayed on a white background. They are often best given a faint, narrow contrasting border to keep the character visually distinct from a similarly colored background. Thus a Japanese flag would have a border so that it would be visible on a white background, and a Swiss flag have a border so that it is visible on a red background.
Current practice is for emoji to have a square aspect ratio, deriving from their origin in Japanese. For interoperability, it is recommended that this practice be continued with current and future emoji.
Flag emoji characters are discussed in Annex B: Flags.
Combining marks may be applied to emoji, just like they can be applied to other characters. When that is done, the combination should take on an emoji presentation. For example, a is represented as the sequence "1" plus an emoji variation selector plus U+20E3 COMBINING ENCLOSING KEYCAP. Systems are unlikely, however, to support arbitrary combining marks with arbitrary emoji. Aside from U+20E3, the following can be used:
For example, (pedestrian crossing ahead) can be represented as + U+20E4, and (no bicycles allowed) can be represented as + U+20E0.
Review Note: The recommended base characters would be associated with traffic signs and perhaps a few other characters. Should we have data listing those, so that implementations would know what to concentrate on?
The following emoji have explicit gender, based on the name and explicit, intentional contrasts with other characters.
U+1F474 older man
U+1F475 older woman
U+1F46B man and woman holding hands
U+1F46C two men holding hands
U+1F46D two women holding hands
U+1F6B9 mens symbol
U+1F6BA womens symbol
U+1F46F woman with bunny ears
U+1F470 bride with veil
U+1F472 man with gua pi mao
U+1F473 man with turban
U+1F574 man in business suit levitating
U+1F385 father christmas
All others should be depicted in a gender-neutral way.
Review Note: For clarity, we may consider documenting gender-neutral characters whose names may be misleading, like guardsman. To comment on this issue, go to Feedback.
People all over the world want to have emoji that reflect more human diversity, especially for skin tone. The Unicode emoji characters for people and body parts are meant to be generic, yet following the precedents set by the original Japanese carrier images, they are often shown with a light skin tone instead of a more generic (nonhuman) appearance, such as a yellow/orange color or a silhouette.
Five symbol modifier characters that provide for a range of skin tones for human emoji are planned for Unicode Version 8.0 (scheduled for mid-2015). These characters are based on the six tones of the Fitzpatrick scale, a recognized standard for dermatology (there are many examples of this scale online, such as FitzpatrickSkinType.pdf). The exact shades may vary between implementations.
|U+1F3FB||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-1-2|
|U+1F3FC||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-3|
|U+1F3FD||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-4|
|U+1F3FE||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-5|
|U+1F3FF||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-6|
These characters have been designed so that even where diverse color images for human emoji are not available, readers can see what the intended meaning was.
The default representation of these modifier characters when used alone is as a color swatch. Whenever one of these characters immediately follows certain characters (such as WOMAN), then a font should show the sequence as a single glyph corresponding to the image for the person(s) or body part with the specified skin tone, such as the following:
However, even if the font doesn’t show the combined character, the user can still see that a skin tone was intended:
This may fall back to a black and white stippled or hatched image such as when colorful emoji are not supported.
When a human emoji is not immediately followed by a emoji modifier character, it should use a generic, non-realistic skin tone—such as (RGB #FFCC22), one of the colors typically used for the smiley faces. Dark hair is recommended for generic images that include hair. People of every skin tone can have black (or very dark brown) hair, so it is more neutral. One exception is PERSON WITH BLOND HAIR, which needs to have blond hair regardless of skin tone.
To have an effect on an emoji, an emoji modifier must immediately follow that emoji. There is only one exception: there may be an emoji variation selector between them. The emoji modifier automatically implies the emoji presentation style, so the variation selector is not needed. However, if the emoji modifier is present it must come immediately after the modified emoji character, such as in:
<U+270C VICTORY HAND, FE0F, TYPE-3>
Any other intervening character causes the emoji modifier to appear as a free-standing character. Thus
+ + →
There are several emoji for multi-person groups, such as COUPLE WITH HEART. The emoji modifiers affect all the people in such characters. However, real multi-person groupings include many in which various members have different skin tones. For representing such groupings, users can employ techniques already found in current emoji practice, in which a sequence of emoji is intended to be read together as a unit, with each emoji in the sequence contributing some piece of information about the unit as a whole. Users can simply enter separate emoji characters for each member of the group, each with its own skin tone e.g.: <MAN, TYPE-1-2, WOMAN, TYPE-3>, possibly preceded by a group character.
Implementations can present the emoji modifiers as separate characters in an input palette, or present the combined characters using mechanisms such as long press.
The emoji modifiers are not intended for combination with arbitrary emoji characters. Instead, they are restricted to the following 124 characters, in two separate sets. Of these characters, it is strongly recommended that the Minimal set for combination be supported. No characters outside of these two sets should be combined with emoji modifiers. These sets may change over time, with successive versions of this document.
|Type||Images||Code points and names (in code point order)|
(26 code points)
|U+1F385 FATHER CHRISTMAS
U+1F46E POLICE OFFICER
U+1F470 BRIDE WITH VEIL
U+1F47C BABY ANGEL
U+1F481 INFORMATION DESK PERSON
U+1F486 FACE MASSAGE
U+1F645 FACE WITH NO GOOD GESTURE
…U+1F647 PERSON BOWING DEEPLY
U+1F64B HAPPY PERSON RAISING ONE HAND
U+1F64D PERSON FROWNING
…U+1F64E PERSON WITH POUTING FACE
(97 code points)
|U+261D WHITE UP POINTING INDEX
U+2639 WHITE FROWNING FACE
…U+263A WHITE SMILING FACE
U+270A RAISED FIST
…U+270D WRITING HAND
U+1F3C7 HORSE RACING
U+1F446 WHITE UP POINTING BACKHAND INDEX
…U+1F450 OPEN HANDS SIGN
U+1F485 NAIL POLISH
U+1F4AA FLEXED BICEPS
U+1F590 RAISED HAND WITH FINGERS SPLAYED
U+1F595 REVERSED HAND WITH MIDDLE FINGER EXTENDED
…U+1F596 RAISED HAND WITH PART BETWEEN MIDDLE AND RING FINGERS
U+1F600 GRINNING FACE
…U+1F637 FACE WITH MEDICAL MASK
U+1F641 SLIGHTLY FROWNING FACE
…U+1F642 SLIGHTLY SMILING FACE
U+1F64C PERSON RAISING BOTH HANDS IN CELEBRATION
U+1F64F PERSON WITH FOLDED HANDS
Review Note: These sets may change before this document is final; we would particularly appreciate feedback on whether particular characters should be removed from either of these sets. In particular, we removed the "groupings", like FAMILY #1f46a, presuming that they should always have a generic appearance, and then be followed by the human images for the family, if desired.
The list does not yet incorporate any Emoji Candidates for Unicode 8.0.
To comment on this issue, go to Feedback.
The following chart shows the shows the expected display with emoji modifiers, depending on the preceding character and the level of support for the emoji modifier. The “Unsupported” rows show how the character would typically appear on a system that doesn't have a font with that character in it: with a missing glyph indicator.
|Support Level||Emoji Type||Sequence||Display Color||Display B&W|
Review Note: we’ve gotten feedback that “minimal” is a confusing term, and it would be better to use the term “core”. Feedback on this point would be appreciated.
The interaction between variation selectors and emoji modifiers is specified as follows:
|Variation Selector||Emoji Modifier||Result||Comment|
|None||Yes||Emoji Presentation||In the absence of other information, the emoji modifier implies emoji appearance.|
|Emoji (U+FE0F)||The emoji modifier base and emoji variation selector must form a valid variation sequence, and the order must as specified in emoji modifier sequence—otherwise support of the variation selector would be non-conformant.|
|Text (U+FE0E)||Text Presentation|
A supported emoji modifier sequence should be treated as a single grapheme cluster for editing purposes (cursor moment, deletion, etc.); word break, line break, etc. For input, the composition of that cluster does not need to be apparent to the user: it appears on the screen as a single image. On a phone, for example, a long-press on a human figure can bring up a minipalette of different skin tones, without the user having to separately find the human figure and then the modifier. The following shows some possible appearances:
Of course, there are many other types of diversity in human appearance besides different skin tones: Different hair styles and color, use of eyeglasses, various kinds of facial hair, different body shapes, different headwear, and so on. It is beyond the scope of Unicode to provide an encoding-based mechanism for representing every aspect of human appearance diversity that emoji users might want to indicate. The best approach for communicating very specific human images—or any type of image in which preservation of specific appearance is very important—is the use of embedded graphics, as described in Longer Term Solutions.
There are 722 Unicode emoji characters corresponding to the Japanese carrier sets.
In addition, most vendors support another 126 characters (from Unicode 6.0 and 6.1):
Review Note: Once these are finalized, we'll replace the contents by a single image to speed up loading.
There are another 247 flags (aside from the 10 from the Japanese carrier sets) that can be optionally supported with Unicode 6.0 characters.
Some of these flags use the same glyphs. For more about flags, see Annex B: Flags.
One of the goals of this document is to provide data for which Unicode characters should normally be considered to be emoji. Based on the data under development, that includes the following 149 characters. Most, but not all, of these are new in Unicode 7.0. This gives a total of 1,245 emoji characters (or sequences) for Unicode 7.0.
Thus vendors that support emoji should provide a colorful appearance for each of these, such as the following:
Review Note: We would like feedback on characters that should be added or removed from the Standard Additions. Removal would be warranted if the character is not currently suited for use with an emoji presentation (although it could be added in the future), or if it would have essentially the same semantics as another emoji character. There have been suggestions to remove the helm symbol and the man in business suit levitating from the recommended emoji sets (they remain, of course, as Unicode characters).
The 41 Unicode 8.0 candidates are listed below. For details, including sample colorful images, see Annex D: Emoji Candidates for Unicode 8.0.
This document provides data files, described in the section Data Files, for determining the set of characters which are expected to have an emoji presentation, either as a default or as a alternate presentation. While Unicode conformance allows any character to be given an emoji representation, characters that are not listed in the Data Files should not normally be given an emoji presentation. For example, pictographic symbols such as keyboard symbols or math symbols (like ANGLE) that should never be treated as emoji. These are current recommendations: existing symbols can be added to this list over time.
This data was derived by starting with the characters that came from the original Japanese sets, plus those that major vendors have provided emoji fonts for. Characters that are similar to those in shape or design were then added. Often these characters are in the same Unicode blocks as the original set, but sometimes not.
This document takes a functional view regarding the identification of emoji: pictographs are categorized as emoji when it is reasonable to give them an emoji presentation, and where they are sufficiently distinct from other emoji characters. Symbols with a graphical form that people may treat as pictographs, such as U+2388 HELM SYMBOL (introduced in Unicode 3.0) may be included.
This document takes a functional view as to the identification of emoji, which is that pictographs—or symbols that have a graphical form that people may treat as pictographs, such as U+2388 HELM SYMBOL (introduced in Unicode 3.0)—are categorized as emoji, since it is reasonable to give them either an emoji or text presentation, such as:
This follows the pattern set by characters such as U+260E BLACK TELEPHONE (introduced in Unicode 1.1), which can have either an emoji or text presentation, such as:
The data does not include non-pictographs, except for those in Unicode that are used to represent characters from emoji sources, such as:
Game pieces, such as the dominos (🀰 🀱 🀲 ... 🂑 🂒), are currently not included as emoji, with the exceptions of U+1F0CF ( ) PLAYING CARD BLACK JOKER and U+1F004 ( ) MAHJONG TILE RED DRAGON. These are included because they correspond each to an emoji character from one of the carrier sets.
Certain emoji have defined variation sequences, where an emoji character can be followed by one of two invisible emoji variation selectors:
This capability was added in Unicode 6.1. Some systems may also provide this distinction with higher-level markup, rather than variation sequences. For more information on these selectors, see the file StandardizedVariants.html.
Implementations should support both styles of presentation for the characters with variation sequences, if possible. Most of these characters are emoji that were unified with preexisting characters. Because people are now using emoji presentation for a broader set of characters, it is anticipated that more such variation sequences will be needed.
However, even where the variation selectors exist, it has not been clear for implementers whether the default presentation for pictographs should be emoji or text. That means that a piece of text may show up in a different style than intended when shared across platforms. While this is all a perfectly legitimate for Unicode characters—presentation style is never guaranteed—a shared sense among developers of when to use emoji presentation by default is important, so that there are fewer unexpected and "jarring" presentations. Implementations need to know what the generally expected default presentation is, to promote interoperability across platforms and applications.
There has been no clear line for implementers between three categories of Unicode characters:
The data files, described in the section Data Files, provide data to distinguish between the first two categories: see the Default column of full-emoji-list. The data assignment is based upon current usage in browsers for Unicode 6.3 characters. For other characters, especially the new 7.0 characters, the assignment is based on that of the related emoji characters. For example, the “vulcan” hand is marked as emoji-default because of the emoji styling currently given to other hands like . The text-only characters are all those not listed in the data files.
In general, emoji characters are marked as text-default if they were in common use and predated the use of emoji. The characters are otherwise marked as emoji-default. For example, the negative squared A and B are text-default, while the negative squared AB is emoji-default. The reason is that A and B are part of a set of negative squared letters A-Z, while the AB was a new character. The default status may change over time, however, if common usage changes.
The presentation of a given emoji character depends on the environment, whether or not there is an emoji or text variation selector, and the default presentation style (emoji vs text). In Informal environments like texting and chats, it is more appropriate for all emoji characters to appear with a colorful emoji presentation, and only get a text presentation with a text variation selector. Conversely, in Formal environments such as word processing, it is generally better for emoji characters to appear with a text presentation, and only get the colorful emoji presentation with the emoji variation selector.
The environments thus include:
|Mixed||plain web pages|
Based on those factors, here is typical presentation behavior. However, these guidelines may change with changing user expectations.
with Emoji VS
with Text VS
with no VS
Review Note: We would like feedback on draft proposed default presentation: whether characters should have their defaults changed from emoji to text or vice versa. The chart for these characters is at text-style.html. To comment on this issue, go to Feedback.
Neither the Unicode code point order, nor the standard Unicode Collation ordering (DUCET), are currently well suited for emoji, since they separate conceptually-related characters. From the user's perspective, the ordering in the following selection of characters sorted by DUCET appears quite random, as illustrated by the following example:
The emoji-ordering data file shows an ordering for emoji characters that groups them together in a more natural fashion.
This ordering groups characters more naturally for the purpose of selection in input palettes (see Section 6 Input), and also presents a cleaner and more expected ordering for sorted lists of characters.
Review Note: Flesh out the text to make a better distinction between ordering and grouping.
Emoji are not typically typed on a keyboard. Instead, they are generally picked from a palette, or recognized via a dictionary. The mobile keyboards typically have a button to select a palette of emoji, such as in the left image below. Clicking on the button reveals a palette, as in the right image.
The palettes need to be organized in a meaningful way for users. They typically provide a small number of broad categories, such as People, Nature, and so on. These categories typically have 100-200 emoji. Palettes may display the same symbol in multiple categories, to help users find a symbol in any category where they might reasonably expect to find it. More advanced palettes will have long-press enabled, so that people can press-and-hold on an emoji and have a set of related emoji pop up. This allows for faster navigation, with less scrolling through the palette.
Annotations for emoji characters are much more finely grained keywords. They can be used for searching characters, and are often easier than palettes for entering emoji characters. For example, when someone types “hourglass” on their mobile phone, they could see and pick from either of the matching emoji characters or . That is often much easier than scrolling through the palette and visually inspecting the screen. Input mechanisms may also map emoticons to emoji as keyboard shortcuts: typing :-) can result in .
In some input systems, a word or phrase bracketed by colons is used to explicitly pick emoji characters. Thus typing in “I saw an :ambulance:” is converted to “I saw an ”. For completeness, such systems might support all of the full Unicode names, such as :first quarter moon with face: for . Spaces within the phrase may be represented by _, as in the following:
“my :alarm_clock: didn’t work”
“my didn’t work”.
However, in general the full Unicode names are not especially suitable for that sort of use; they were designed to be unique identifiers, and tend to be overly long or confusing.
Searching includes both searching for emoji characters in queries, and finding emoji characters in the target. These are most useful when they include the annotations as synonyms or hints. For example, when someone searches for on yelp.com, they see matches for “gas station”. Conversely, searching for “gas pump” in a search engine could find pages containing . Similarly, searching for “gas pump” in an email program can bring up all the emails containing .
There is no requirement for uniqueness in both palette categories and annotations: an emoji should show up wherever users would expect it. A gas pump might show up under “object” and “travel”; a heart under “heart” and “emotion”, a under “animal”, “cat”, and “heart”.
Annotations are language-specific: searching on yelp.de, someone would expect a search for to result in matches for “Tankstelle”. Thus annotations need to be in multiple languages to be useful across languages. They should also include regional annotations within a given language, like “petrol station”, which people would expect search for to result in on yelp.co.uk. An English annotation cannot simply be translated into different languages, since different words may have different associations in different languages. The emoji may be associated with Mexican or Southwestern restaurants in the US, but not be associated with them in, say, Greece.
There is one further kind of annotation, called a TTS name, for text-to-speech processing. For accessibility when reading text, it is useful to have a short, descriptive name for an emoji character. A Unicode character name can often serve as a basis for this, but its requirements for name uniqueness often ends up with names that are overly long, such as black right-pointing double triangle with vertical bar for . TTS names are also outside the current scope of this document.
Review Note: The annotations have been incorporated into the Unicode CLDR project: for example, see the Unicode CLDR Annotations Chart. The data file emoji-annotations is included here for comments. We would like feedback on suggested additions, removals, or replacements. Note that we are not interested in acronyms. To comment on this issue, go to Feedback.
The longer-term goal for implementations should be to support embedded graphics, in addition to the emoji characters. Embedded graphics allow arbitrary emoji symbols, and are not be dependent on additional Unicode encoding. Here are some examples of this:
However, to be as effective and simple to use as emoji characters, a full solution requires significant infrastructure changes to allow simple, reliable input and transport of images (stickers) in texting, chat, mobile phones, email programs, virtual and mobile keyboards, and so on. (Even so, such images will never interchange in environments that only support plain text, such as email addresses.) Until that time, many implementations will need to use Unicode emoji instead.
For example, mobile keyboards need to be enhanced. Enabling embedded graphics would involve adding an additional custom mechanism for users to add in their own graphics or purchase additional sets, such as a sign to add an image to the palette above. This would prompt the user to paste or otherwise select a graphic, and add annotations for dictionary selection.
With such an enhanced mobile keyboard, the user could then select those graphics in the same way as selecting the Unicode emoji. If users started adding many custom graphics, the mobile keyboard might even be enhanced to allow ordering or organization of those graphics so that they can be quickly accessed. The extra graphics would need to be disabled if the target of the mobile keyboard (such as an email header line) would only accept text.
Other features required to make embedded graphics work well include the ability of images to scale with font size, inclusion of embedded images in more transport protocols, switching services and applications to use protocols that do permit inclusion of embedded images (eg, MMS versus SMS for text messages). There will always, however, be places where embedded graphics can’t be used—such as email headers, SMS messages, or file names. There are also privacy aspects to implementations of embedded graphics: if the graphic itself is not packaged with the text, but instead is just a reference to an image on a server, then that server could track usage.
The main data file is [emoji-data]. Some derived charts are supplied as HTML files for easier viewing.
Review Note: some of the HTML files, plus the emoji-ordering.txt and emoji-annotations.xml will be removed in the release of this document. Feedback on charts that are more useful would be appreciated.
The most important feedback on data would be on [emoji-data]. These are, in priority order, the following:
The available files are:
|emoji-data.txt||A plain text file containing information on levels,
presentation, and emoji modifiers, with informative data on
sources and versions. Review Note:
For now, the U+ is present in field 0, to make importing into a
|emoji-ordering.txt||Ordering data incorporated into CLDR v27, included here during development to allow feedback.|
|emoji-annotations.xml||Annotation data incorporated into CLDR v27, included here during development to allow feedback. See the Unicode CLDR Annotations Chart.|
|full-emoji-list.html||A chart of data from emoji-data.txt, with images showing depictions from different sources, and ordering and annotations. For the column descriptions, see Full Emoji List.|
|missing-emoji-list||A chart with images showing where sources don’t have emoji images. The images are not what would appear in that source; instead, they show cases that are marked missing for that source in the full-emoji-list file. So, for example, the image of in the Android column means that that character (U+260E black telephone) is marked as missing for Android in full-emoji-list. Characters in a “common” row are missing in all of the sources: the image of there means that all the sources are missing the Canadian flag.|
|emoji-list.html||An abbreviated chart showing characters, not images. For checking browser/platform support.|
|emoji-style.html||A chart showing proposed default presentation style for each character. Separate rows show the presentation with and without variation selectors, where applicable. Flags are shown with images. Also in column 6 of Full Emoji List.|
|emoji-labels.html||A chart showing characters grouped by palette category. These are building blocks for palette categories, which would group some of these together.|
|emoji-annotations.html||A chart showing characters grouped by annotation. Also in column 7 of Full Emoji List. The annotations are meant to be used in combination to winnow down the matches, so :face moon: would match the characters annotated with both “face” and with “moon”.|
|emoji-ordering.html||A chart showing ordering of emoji characters that groups like characters together. Unlike the labels or annotations, each character only occurs once. The flags are presented according to code point. That can be varied by language: for more information, see Annex B: Flags.|
|other-labels.html||A chart showing other general symbols and punctuation. That can be used to scan for other characters that might qualify for emoji presentation.|
|emoji-versions.html||A chart showing when different emoji were added to Unicode, by Unicode version.|
|emoji-versions-sources.html||A chart showing when different emoji were added to Unicode, and the sources. (See the Version information in Full Emoji List for the source description.) The sources indicate where a Unicode character corresponds to a character in the source. In many cases, the character had already been encoded well before the source was considered for other characters.|
|text-style.html||A chart showing a summary view of which characters have the default text style, and which have the default emoji style.|
Review Note: These are all live documents and may be updated or changed at any time during the draft development process.
In many of the HTML chart files, hovering over an image usually shows the code point and name, and clicking on the image goes to the respective row in the Full Emoji List. Each image has the respective character as an alt value, so copying the image into plain text should (OS permitting) give the plain text character for that image.
The Symbola font can be installed for a readable text presentation where the emoji presentation or black&white fonts are not available on your browser. Your browser’s zoom is also useful for examining the characters and images.
For the full-emoji-list file, the columns are the following. Because the name and code point are already present, hovering or clicking on an image doesn’t have the same effect as in other files. However, the alt values are still present for cut and paste into plain text.
|Count||A line count, for reference.|
|Code||The code point(s) for the emoji characters. Some rows have more than one code point where a sequence is required, such as for flags and keycaps. Clicking on the code point puts a link to that row in the address bar.|
|Browser||The character, showing whatever image would be native for the browser.|
|B&W||The visual appearance of the codes, using the Unicode chart font, plus PNGs for the flags.|
|Apple, Andr, Twit, Wind, GMail, DCM, KDDI, SB||Images from the respective sources for
comparison. The GMail...KDDI are for comparison with images used
before incorporation into Unicode.
Note that for the cells marked missing, there are sometimes B&W images that would appear on the source that are not shown here. For example, U+2639 is shown as missing for Apple, but there are B&W images for it available on Apple platforms.
|Name||The character name in lowercase (or an informative gloss, for the case of flags and keycaps).|
|Version||The version of Unicode in which the emoji was added. A superscript indicates the source of the character. Where a Unicode character corresponds to multiple sources, multiple superscripts will be present. The sources are:|
|a||ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses)|
|j||JCarrier||Japanese telephone carriers|
|w||WDings||Wingdings & Webdings|
|Default||The draft proposed default presentation style. An * indicates that there are variation selectors (text and emoji) for the character.|
|Annotations||A list of informative annotations. Clicking on a link goes to the respective row in the emoji-annotations. Some of the annotations are included just for comparison during development and will be removed before release, such as *-apple and *-android.|
There are 26 REGIONAL INDICATOR symbols that can be used in pairs to represent country flags. This mechanism was designed to be extensible, rather than be limited to just the 10 flags supported by the Japanese carriers.
Where flag emoji characters are supported, they should not just be limited to the 10 Japanese carrier flags. To avoid discriminating against other flags, they should instead be present for all of the valid country codes. More specifically, these are the Unicode region subtags that are neither deprecated, nor private use, and nor macroregions (with the exception of the EU). This can be determined mechanically from data in CLDR. An overseas territory sometimes doesn't have its own flag, or only has flags for subregions. In such cases, it may share the same flag as for the country.
Emoji are generally presented with a square aspect ratio, which presents a problem for flags. The flag for Qatar is over 150% wider than tall; for Switzerland it is square; for Nepal it is over 20% taller than wide. To avoid a ransom-note effect, implementations may want to use a fixed ratio across all flags, such as 150%, with a blank band on the top and bottom. (The average width for flags is between 150% and 165%.) Narrower flags, such as the Swiss flag, may also have white bands on the side.
Flags should have a visible edge. One option is to use a 1 pixel gray line chosen to be contrasting with the adjacent field color.
The code point order of flags is by region code, which will not be intuitive for viewers, since that rarely matches the order of countries in the viewer's language. English speakers are surprised that the flag for Germany comes before the flag for Djibouti. An alternative is to present the sorted order according to the localized country name, using CLDR data.
For an open-source set of flag images (png and svg), see region-flags.
In the past, most emoji characters have been selected primarily on the basis of compatibility. The scope is being broadened to include other factors, as listed below.
To submit a proposal for a new emoji character, fill out the form for Submitting Character Proposals. To that form, also add an annex that lists each of the selection factors below, and for each one provides evidence as to what degree each proposed character would satisfy that factor.
None of these factors are completely determinant. For example, the word for an object may be extremely common on the internet, but the object not necessarily a good candidate due to other factors.
Note that symbols used in signage or user interfaces may be encoded in Unicode for reasons unconnected with their use as emoji.
Aside from the new diversity characters, the Unicode Consortium has accepted 36 other emoji characters as candidates for Unicode 8.0, scheduled for mid-2015. These are candidates—not yet finalized—so some may not appear in the release.
Review Note: This document is intended for release shortly after Unicode 8.0, and the text in this section and elsewhere (such as the introduction) would be changed to refer the the characters as in 8.0, not as candidates.
Review Note: Names may also change or annotations be added: for example, PLACE OF WORSHIP is both intended for stand-alone use, but also for use in sequences with a religious symbol to indicate a particular type, such as . Feedback is welcome: go to Feedback.
The Emoji modifiers are discussed in Section 2.2 Diversity. The Faces, Hands, and Zodiac Symbols are for compatibility with other messaging and mail systems. There are many other possible emoji that could be added, but releases need to be restricted to a manageable number. Many other emoji characters, such as other food items and symbols of religious significance, are still being assessed, and could appear in a future release of the Unicode Standard. See also Annex C: Selection Factors.
The images in the Draft Chart Glyph column below are draft black and white versions for the Unicode charts. They are likely to change before release. Once finalized, vendors that support emoji should provide a colorful appearance for each of these. The samples in the Sample Colored Glyph column below use a variety of different styles to show some possible presentations. These are only samples; vendor images may vary.
|Code Point||Draft Chart Glyph||Sample Colored Glyph||Name|
|Emoji modifiers (See Section 2.2 Diversity)|
|U+1F3FB||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-1-2|
|U+1F3FC||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-3|
|U+1F3FD||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-4|
|U+1F3FE||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-5|
|U+1F3FF||EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE-6|
|Faces, Hands, and Zodiac Symbols|
|U+1F912||FACE WITH THERMOMETER|
|U+1F915||FACE WITH ROLLING EYES|
|U+1F915||FACE WITH HEAD-BANDAGE|
|U+1F918||SIGN OF THE HORNS|
|U+1F980||CRAB (also Cancer)|
|U+1F982||SCORPION (also Scorpio)|
|U+1F981||LION FACE (also Leo)|
|U+1F3F9||BOW AND ARROW (also Sagittarius)|
|U+1F3FA||AMPHORA (also Aquarius)|
|Symbols of Religious Significance|
|U+1F6D0||PLACE OF WORSHIP|
|U+1F54E||MENORAH WITH NINE BRANCHES|
|Most Popularly Requested Emoji|
|U+1F37E||BOTTLE WITH POPPING CORK|
|Missing Top Sports Symbols|
|U+1F3CF||CRICKET BAT AND BALL|
|U+1F3D1||FIELD HOCKEY STICK AND BALL|
|U+1F3D2||ICE HOCKEY STICK AND PUCK|
|U+1F3D3||TABLE TENNIS PADDLE AND BALL|
|U+1F3F8||BADMINTON RACQUET AND SHUTTLECOCK|
Mark Davis and Peter Edberg created the initial versions of this document, and maintain the text.
Thanks to Shervin Afshar, Julie Allen, Michele Coady, Craig Cummings, Norbert Lindenberg, Ken Lunde, Katsuhiko Momoi, Katrina Parrott, Michelle Perham, Roozbeh Pournader, Markus Scherer, and Ken Whistler for feedback on and contributions to this document, including earlier versions. Thanks to Michael Everson for draft candidate images.
Review Note: We’ll flesh out the references later.
|[Unicode]||The Unicode Standard
For the latest version, see:
|[UTR36]||UTR #36: Unicode
|[UTS39]||UTS #39: Unicode
|[Versions]||Versions of the Unicode Standard
For details on the precise contents of each version of the Unicode Standard, and how to cite them.
The following summarizes modifications from the previous revisions of this document.
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