[Unicode] Unicode Technical Notes Tech Site | Site Map | Search

About UnicodeĀ® Technical Notes

Unicode Technical Notes provide information on a variety of topics related to the Unicode Standard and internationalization technologies.

These technical notes are independent publications, not approved by any of the Unicode Technical Committees, nor are they part of the Unicode Standard or any other Unicode specification. Publication does not imply endorsement by the Unicode Consortium in any way. These documents are not subject to the Unicode Consortium Patent Policy.


Readers should be aware of the fact that Unicode Technical Notes are not updated on a regular basis, if at all. It is the responsibility of the reader to determine whether a particular document has become out-of-date. Unicode Technical Notes are not reviewed or maintained by the Unicode Technical Committee or the Unicode Editorial Committee, so there are no guarantees that they will be updated to track changes in the Unicode Standard or other Unicode Consortium standards.

From time to time, an author may be requested to update material in a Unicode Technical Note for consistency with later versions of the Unicode Standard or other standards, or to correct other errors in the Note. Responsibility for maintenance of the Unicode Technical Note lies solely with the author, and the author may or may not choose to update the Note. In some instances, such as Unicode Technical Notes consisting of particular presentations at a Internationalization and Unicode Conference or other conference, the Note may simply be considered an archival record, unsuitable for updating.

The Unicode Consortium reserves the right to withdraw a Unicode Technical Note from circulation at any time for any reason.


Unicode Technical Notes may be versioned by the authors, so that a Note can be updated while keeping prior posted versions stable for reference. No content changes are made after a Note is posted without incrementing the version number. Unless a prior version is withdrawn, it will remain on the server to allow for stable references. If a Note is withdrawn, then the last version of the Note will describe its status and whether the content is known to be maintained elsewhere (such as in part of a Unicode Technical Report or on another site).


Before acceptance for posting, the Notes are reviewed by a group designated by the Unicode Editorial Committee. The only criteria for submission are that in the judgment of the reviewers the subject matter is useful and the content does not contravene the Unicode Standard or other Unicode specifications.

The suggested submission format is HTML using the Unicode Technical Note Template. Alternatively, an author may supply a document in PDF format or in another HTML style. In that case, however, for consistency and maintenance purposes, the author must also provide a cover page using the Basic Unicode Technical Note Cover Template.  All submissions must pass the W3C HTML Validator.

If the submission is in PDF, authors should include the following text at the end of the document, filling in the [authors] placeholder with appropriate names and adjusting the copyright year as appropriate.

Ā© 2020 [authors] and Unicode, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Unicode Consortium and [authors] make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind, and assume no liability for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental and consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained or accompanying this technical note. The Unicode Terms of Use apply.
Unicode and the Unicode Logo are registered trademarks of Unicode, Inc. in the United States and other countries.

Submissions of Technical Notes should be sent to the Unicode office. (New authors will need to contact the office before submission, using the online contact form, to obtain instructions on the procedure for uploading or mailing the document.)

The author(s) must include in the submission request the following statement: "The proposed technical note is an original work of the authors, who request the Unicode Consortium to post it as a Unicode Technical Note."